Capital Market Rating

Books

Oliver Everling and Jens Schmidt-Bürgel (editors): Capital Market Rating: Perspectives for Corporate Financing, Betriebswirtschaftlicher Verlag Th. Gabler, Wiesbaden 1st edition December 2005, http://www.gabler-verlag.de, hardcover, 318 pages, ISBN 3-409-14242-8.

The financing requirements for companies have changed considerably in recent years. There is a trend from bank-oriented to capital-market-driven financing culture, and corporate bonds are becoming an increasingly important form of financing. Capital market ratings reflect the ability and willingness of a company to fully and timely meet its payment obligations under its debt obligations. This makes them an important instrument for assessing and communicating the future viability of the issuer. For investors, capital market ratings are a tool to assess the credit risk of fixed income securities they wish to buy or sell. Leading investors worldwide rely on ratings, which in turn gives companies a secure and flexible way to raise capital.

In the anthology “Kapitalmarktrating” renowned experts give a practical insight into the process of capital market rating, prerequisites for a good rating, instruments and methods of risk identification and control.

Oliver Everling und Jens Schmidt-Bürgel (Herausgeber): Kapitalmarktrating: Perspektiven für die Unternehmensfinanzierung, Betriebswirtschaftlicher Verlag Dr. Th. Gabler, Wiesbaden 1. Auflage Dezember 2005, http://www.gabler-verlag.de, gebundene Ausgabe, 318 Seiten, ISBN 3-409-14242-8.

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Issuer Definition

Definitions, Read

An issuer is a legal entity that issues financial instruments. Depending on the jurisdiction the issuer is domiciled in, the work of an issuer includes to develop, register and sell securities for the purpose of financing its operations. The most common types of securities issued are equities (common and preferred stocks) and debt (bonds, notes, debentures and bills).

The word issuer is so common in finance that it is easy to overlook the exact meaning of the word. The word meaning differs depending on the context. Different laws do not agree in their definitions. This applies not only between the jurisdictions of different states, but even within one jurisdiction.

Various rating agencies offer issuer ratings. Because of the various meanings of the word “issuer” these ratings have to be asked who exactly is meant. On the other hand, it must also be taken into account which exact characteristics of the issuer are classified by the rating. A rating can classify creditworthiness, but also, for example, the issuer’s compliance with ethical, ecological and social criteria.

In the Listing Rules of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, for example, any company, legal person or undertaking, any class of whose securities has been admitted to listing or is the subject of an application for admission to listing. In the Disclosure Guidance and Transparency Rules an issuer is a legal entity governed by private or public law which issues or proposes to issue financial instruments; a person whose securities are admitted to trading on a regulated market; and either a person whose shares are admitted to trading on a regulated market or a public company and any other body corporate incorporated in and having a principal place of business in the UK, whose shares are admitted to trading on a prescribed market (not being a regulated market). In the Prospectus Regulation Rules an issuer is a legal person who issues or proposes to issue the transferable securities in question. The examples show that the term “issuer” has different meanings depending on the context in which it is used.

In the United States of America, the term “issuer” means every person who issues or proposes to issue any security; except that with respect to certificates of deposit, voting-trust certificates, or collateral-trust certificates, or with respect to certificates of interest or shares in an unincorporated investment trust not having a board of directors (or persons performing similar functions) or of the fixed, restricted management, or unit type, the term “issuer” means the person or persons performing the acts and assuming the duties of depositor or manager pursuant to the provisions of the trust or other agreement or instrument under which such securities are issued; except that in the case of an unincorporated association which provides by its articles for limited liability of any or all of its members, or in the case of a trust, committee, or other legal entity, the trustees or members thereof shall not be individually liable as issuers of any security issued by the association, trust, committee, or other legal entity; except that with respect to equipment-trust certificates or like securities, the term “issuer” means the person by whom the equipment or property is or is to be used; and except that with respect to fractional undivided interests in oil, gas, or other mineral rights, the term “issuer” means the owner of any such right or of any interest in such right (whether whole or fractional) who creates fractional interests therein for the purpose of public offering.

In conclusion, issuers may be governments, corporations, investment trusts or other legal entities. In general, issuers are legally responsible for the obligations of the issue and for reporting financial conditions, material developments and any other operational activities as required by the regulations of their jurisdictions.

Capital Market Rating

Books

Oliver Everling and Jens Schmidt-Bürgel (publisher): Capital Market Rating: Perspectives for Corporate Financing, Betriebswirtschaftlicher Verlag Th. Gabler, Wiesbaden 1st edition December 2005, http://www.gabler-verlag.de, hardcover, 318 pages, ISBN 3-409-14242-8.

The financing requirements for companies have changed considerably in recent years. There is a trend from bank-oriented to capital-market-driven financing culture, and corporate bonds are becoming an increasingly important form of financing. Capital market ratings reflect the ability and willingness of a company to fully and timely meet its payment obligations under its debt obligations. This makes them an important instrument for assessing and communicating the future viability of the issuer. For investors, capital market ratings are a tool to assess the credit risk of fixed income securities they wish to buy or sell. Leading investors worldwide rely on ratings, which in turn gives companies a secure and flexible way to raise capital.

In the anthology “Kapitalmarktrating” renowned experts give a practical insight into the process of capital market rating, prerequisites for a good rating, instruments and methods of risk identification and control.

Oliver Everling und Jens Schmidt-Bürgel (Herausgeber): Kapitalmarktrating: Perspektiven für die Unternehmensfinanzierung, Betriebswirtschaftlicher Verlag Dr. Th. Gabler, Wiesbaden 1. Auflage Dezember 2005, http://www.gabler-verlag.de, gebundene Ausgabe, 318 Seiten, ISBN 3-409-14242-8.

Legal Issues in Ratings

Books, News, Notching, Platforms, Procedures, Registrations, Regulations, Repositories

Ann-Kristin Achleitner and Oliver Everling (Editor): Legal Issues in Ratings: Fundamentals and Implications of Ratings for Agencies, Investors and Companies Advised, Betriebswirtschaftlicher Verlag Th. Gabler, Wiesbaden 1st edition November 2005, http://www.gabler-verlag.de, hardcover, 470 pages, ISBN 3-409-14314-9.

The issuing of ratings by external rating agencies as well as internal ratings are of increasing relevance for the refinancing processes as well as for investment decisions on the part of investors. The book outlines the main legal implications of ratings for agencies, investors and rated companies.

Ann-Kristin Achleitner und Oliver Everling (Herausgeber): Rechtsfragen im Rating: Grundlagen und Implikationen von Ratings für Agenturen, Investoren und geratete Unternehmen, Betriebswirtschaftlicher Verlag Dr. Th. Gabler, Wiesbaden 1. Auflage November 2005, http://www.gabler-verlag.de, gebundene Ausgabe, 470 Seiten, ISBN 3-409-14314-9.

Rating Practice Manual

Books

Ann-Kristin Achleitner and Oliver Everling (Publisher): Rating Practice Manual: Answers to the Challenge Basel II, Betriebswirtschaftlicher Verlag Th. Gabler, Wiesbaden 1st edition May 2004, http://www.gabler-verlag.de, hardcover, 952 pages, ISBN 3-409-12523-X.

How is the rating market organized? What is the best possible preparation for a rating? How can you use and improve ratings? Renowned experts point the way to optimal credit rating and favorable conditions.

Ann-Kristin Achleitner und Oliver Everling (Herausgeber): Handbuch Ratingpraxis: Antworten auf die Herausforderung Basel II, Betriebswirtschaftlicher Verlag Dr. Th. Gabler, Wiesbaden 1. Auflage Mai 2004, http://www.gabler-verlag.de, gebundene Ausgabe, 952 Seiten, ISBN 3-409-12523-X.

Rating – Opportunity for SMEs According to Basel II

Books

Oliver Everling (Publisher): Rating – Opportunity for SMEs according to Basel II. Concepts for Credit Assessment, Key to Financing, Betriebswirtschaftlicher Verlag Th. Gabler, Wiesbaden 1st edition December 2001, http://www.gabler-verlag.de, hardcover, 700 pages, ISBN 3-409-11812-8.

As recently as the 1980s, ratings in the German-speaking world were regarded as a peculiarity of the US capital markets. At that time, ratings and rating agencies in at least 50 countries were also widespread outside the United States. At first it seemed that differences in the financial systems were responsible for the fact that ratings did not spread in Germany: the universal banking system here, the segregation banking system there. Too big were the opposites. On the one side of the Atlantic, virtually every company present on the capital market was already equipped with ratings, on the other side of which the circle of rated companies was limited to those that served the international financial markets. Even for this circle the relevance of ratings had to be questioned.

What benefit should be associated with the classification of globally known “first” addresses? So the creditworthiness of such companies in financial circles was long known! However, it was precisely the Siemens group that was the first address in the industry in Germany to be rated as an independent agency. “Rating” has long since developed into an indispensable business card on the international financial markets. Those who were above any credit rating found that rating was a crucial additional element of building trust among financiers. For business partners around the world, the rating is the essential signal for assessing the viability of a company.

Oliver Everling (Herausgeber): Rating – Chance für den Mittelstand nach Basel II. Konzepte zur Bonitätsbeurteilung, Schlüssel zur Finanzierung, Betriebswirtschaftlicher Verlag Dr. Th. Gabler, Wiesbaden 1. Auflage Dezember 2001, http://www.gabler-verlag.de, gebundene Ausgabe, 700 Seiten, ISBN 3-409-11812-8.