Next Generation Financial Services: The New Digital Power of Customers

Books

Oliver Everling and Robert Lempka (Publisher): Next Generation Financial Services: The New Digital Power of Customers, 1st Edition Frankfurt am Main 2013, Frankfurt School Verlag, 462 pages, ISBN 978-3-940913-62-3.

The Internet and the digital revolution have changed society and the economy on an unprecedented scale. After industries such as publishing or retail have been fundamentally reoriented in recent years, the financial sector is still lagging behind in this development. The book shows how the financial industry is changing and what new business models and opportunities are emerging.

This book is about presenting trends in the financial industry and presenting new business models made possible by the digital revolution and the resulting strengthening of the customer. It identifies adaptation processes and changes that the financial sector faces not only through the potential of the Internet, but also through the use of a wide range of different end-user devices that bank customers of the past will use to communicate with their financial service providers. As a scientifically founded and practice-oriented compendium, the book offers concrete benefits for investors and decision-makers.

It will address internet industry readers as well as bankers and other financial service providers, as well as rating agencies, venture capitalists, seed financiers, business angels, investors, consultants, headhunters, academics and business journalists.

Oliver Everling und Robert Lempka (Herausgeber): Finanzdienstleister der nächsten Generation: Die neue digitale Macht der Kunden, 1. Auflage Frankfurt am Main 2013, Frankfurt School Verlag, 462 Seiten, ISBN 978-3-940913-62-3.

Municipal Rating: Securing Financing for Cities and Municipalities

Books

Oliver Everling and Michael Munsch (publisher): Municipal rating: securing financing of cities and communities, 1st edition Cologne 2013, Bank-Verlag, http://www.bank-verlag.de/, 383 pages, Art. 22.489-1300, ISBN 978-3-86556-285-2.

Whether in municipalities of “strengthening pact” or countries of “bailouts” is spoken, the underlying problems are similar: In any case, it is about imminent payment difficulties in formerly believed to be “absolutely safe” debtors.

The political decision to weight the risk of public debtors with “zero” for capital adequacy purposes makes a municipal rating in no way expendable for economic reasons.

The book deals for the first time with the topic of local finances from the perspective of the rating. Instead of theoretical modeling, practical solutions are discussed, especially from the perspective of those affected, the mayors and city treasurers.

Oliver Everling und Michael Munsch (Herausgeber): Kommunalrating: Finanzierung von Städten und Gemeinden sichern, 1. Auflage Köln 2013, Bank-Verlag, http://www.bank-verlag.de/, 383 Seiten, Art.-Nr. 22.489-1300, ISBN 978-3-86556-285-2.

Transparency Rating: Paths to Efficient Analysis and Valuation of Corporate Accounting

Books

Oliver Everling, Peter Schaub and Rolf Stephan (publisher): Transparency Rating: Paths to Efficient Analysis and Valuation of Corporate Accounting (German Edition), Gabler Verlag – Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH, http://www.gabler.de/, 242 pages , Wiesbaden 2012, ISBN 978-3-8349-3365-2.

The contributions of the anthology revolve around the financial reporting of companies from the different perspectives of the authors. The authors not only outline challenges and issues, but also present solutions to increase the transparency and efficiency of corporate accounting, as well as their rating and assessment through systematic rating.

By linking the idea to the idea of comparing and classifying alternatives, the reader should be offered a publication that is scientifically sound, but rather as a practice-oriented compendium with concrete benefits in terms of the links between financial communication, accounting, and company management.

Oliver Everling, Peter Schaub und Rolf Stephan (Herausgeber): Transparenzrating: Wege zur Effizienten Analyse und Bewertung der Rechnungslegung von Unternehmen (German Edition), Gabler Verlag – Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH, http://www.gabler.de/, 242 Seiten, Wiesbaden 2012, ISBN 978-3-8349-3365-2.

Rating Health Insurance

Books

Thomas Adolph, Oliver Everling and Marco Metzler (Editor): Rating health insurance: performance ratings and management as key factors, Springer Gabler Verlag, Wiesbaden, http://www.springer-gabler.de/, 3rd edition, 416 pages, Wiesbaden 2017 , ISBN 978-3-8349-4752-9.

Statutory health insurance companies and private health insurers have to deal with their future viability: Consolidation and concentration on the central requirements of legislators and insured persons are the consequence. Based on the patient or insured perspective and their criteria for choosing the right insurance, the articles in this anthology show how health insurance companies can adapt to the demands of the future.

Special attention is given to the performance evaluations and the possibilities of granting additional services beyond the legal minimum. As a publication volume, the present title is the first book of its kind and offers contributing authors the opportunity to convey their assessment approaches, prerequisites, processes, requirements and expectations to a broader specialist audience.

Thomas Adolph, Oliver Everling und Marco Metzler (Herausgeber): Krankenversicherung im Rating: Leistungsbewertungen und Management als Schlüsselfaktoren, Springer Gabler Verlag, Wiesbaden, http://www.springer-gabler.de/, 3. Auflage, 416 Seiten, Wiesbaden 2017, ISBN 978-3-8349-4752-9.

Thomas Adolph, Oliver Everling und Marco Metzler (Herausgeber): Krankenversicherung im Rating – Leistungsbewertungen und Management als Schlüsselfaktoren, Springer Gabler Verlag, Wiesbaden, http://www.springer-gabler.de/, 2. Auflage, 357 Seiten, Wiesbaden 2014, ISBN 978-3-8349-4579-2.

Thomas Adolph, Oliver Everling und Marco Metzler (Herausgeber): Krankenversicherung im Rating – Leistungsbewertungen und Management als Schlüsselfaktoren, Gabler Verlag – Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH, http://www.gabler.de/, 358 Seiten, Wiesbaden 2012, ISBN 978-3-8349-2633-3.

Financial Communication: Opportunities Through Credit Mediation

Books

Frank Armbruster, Oliver Everling and Rainer Langen (publisher): Financial Communication: Opportunities through Credit Mediation, Bank-Verlag Medien GmbH, http://www.bank-verlag-medien.de/, Cologne 2011, Art. 22,474-1100, ISBN 978-3-86556-262-3.

At the end of 2009, the Federal Government of Germany decided to commission a credit intermediary with the implementation of the credit intermediation procedure. Since then, a number of different private-sector offers have been established on the market – all with the aim of building bridges of understanding between entrepreneurs and banks, overcoming misunderstandings in communication and providing solutions for goal-oriented cooperation in financing issues. Credit mediation should help to improve the supply of the middle class with credits. Credit mediators are independent mediators between the financial and real economy.

Proper financial communication is an essential part of successful corporate governance. Because good financial communication promotes the growth potential of a company and the associated employment effects. The bank does not know how the individual entrepreneur is “ticking”. The best way to solve this problem is to create a win-win situation for the bank and the entrepreneur. The loan mediator will help prepare for the bank conversation, analyze business models or provide public support programs.

Frank Armbruster, Oliver Everling und Rainer Langen (Herausgeber): Finanzkommunikation: Chancen durch Kreditmediation, Bank-Verlag Medien GmbH, http://www.bank-verlag-medien.de/, Köln 2011, Art.-Nr. 22.474-1100, ISBN 978-3-86556-262-3.

Rating Exchange Traded Funds

Books

Oliver Everling and Götz Kirchhoff (publisher): Exchange Traded Fund Rating: Market Overview, Criteria and Practical Application, Bank-Verlag Medien GmbH, http://www.bank-verlag-shop.de/product_info.php/products_id/3030, Cologne 2011, 375 pages, Art. 22,472-1100, ISBN 978-3-86556-257-9.

Exchange-traded funds (ETFs) present investors with particular challenges in the assessment: Product quality, index quality as well as information quality and transparency play a special role.

ETF ratings combine qualitative and quantitative methods, partly objectified in scoring models, and condensed features into panel results.

Everling and Kirchhoff are now presenting the first book on the topic, which raises the understanding of ETF benchmarks and approaches and highlights the value of ETF ratings in investment practice.

Given the abundance of information available on the Internet about ETF rating, the book provides an overview and identifies the relevant information for the evaluation of ETFs among the many sales information.

Oliver Everling und Götz Kirchhoff (Herausgeber): Exchange Traded Fund-Rating: Marktüberblick, Einsatzkriterien und Praxiseinsatz, Bank-Verlag Medien GmbH, http://www.bank-verlag-shop.de/product_info.php/products_id/3030, Köln 2011, 375 Seiten, Art.-Nr. 22.472-1100, ISBN 978-3-86556-257-9.

Rating Custodians and Master Investment Companies

Books

Volker Braunberger, Oliver Everling and Uwe Rieken (publisher): Rating of Custodians and Master-KAG: Investor Protection and Efficiency Enhancement for Institutional Investors, Gabler Verlag – Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH, http://www.gabler.de, Wiesbaden 2011, 316 pages , ISBN 978-3-8349-2578-7.

The book shows institutional investors how to use the design options that have been allowed since the Circular on Banking Supervision in practice. Testimonials, as well as contributions on future perspectives and new ideas present ways to assess and implement master investment company concepts. A rating of master investment trusts and custodian banks examines the extent to which cooperation with international asset managers is facilitated, the uniformity of the reporting of several asset managers, the inclusion of proprietary investments in consolidated reporting, and the reduction of depreciation risks. Making the right decisions about the custodian and master investment company can make distributions more flexible and easier to manage asset exchanges.

Volker Braunberger, Oliver Everling und Uwe Rieken (Herausgeber): Rating von Depotbank und Master-KAG: Anlegerschutz und Effizienzsteigerung für institutionelle Kapitalanleger, Gabler Verlag – Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH, http://www.gabler.de, Wiesbaden 2011, 316 Seiten, ISBN 978-3-8349-2578-7.

Rating in the Leasing Business

Books

Hans-Michael Heitmüller, Marijan Nemet and Oliver Everling (Publisher): Rating in the Leasing Business: Significance and Requirements Against the Background of Current Market Developments, Fritz Knapp Verlag GmbH, http://www.knapp-verlag.de/, Frankfurt am Main 2010 , 363 pages, ISBN 978-3-8314-0834-4.

The rating of leasing companies is becoming increasingly important. Because of the financial crisis, the refinancing of leasing companies is made more difficult. This makes the rating a success factor for them in the context of a broader investor approach. But even rating judgments are not free of criticism and contradiction. Appropriate standards must therefore be discussed and questioned as well as the optimal operating structure and size of the leasing company itself. The requirements for operations management and especially for risk management are constantly increasing.

For the first time in the literature, the rating of leasing companies is addressed in this book. Here, the focus is on opportunities and default risks, as they are to be assessed according to Basel II using rating scales. The aim is to clarify the procedures and assessment benchmarks with regard to leasing companies, to show approaches to implementation and to clarify the benefits and functions of ratings for leasing companies in addition to legal, tax and technical aspects.

The book is a valuable guide for anyone involved in investment and finance issues related to leasing companies. In other words, executives and professionals in banking, insurance, accounting and tax consulting firms, consulting and IT companies, law firms, regulators and authorities, credit rating agencies and research firms, and universities benefit from this book.

Hans-Michael Heitmüller, Marijan Nemet und Oliver Everling (Hrsg.): Rating im Leasinggeschäft: Bedeutung und Anforderungen vor dem Hintergrund aktueller Marktentwicklungen, Fritz Knapp Verlag GmbH, http://www.knapp-verlag.de/, Frankfurt am Main 2010, 363 Seiten, ISBN 978-3-8314-0834-4.

Rating Accounts Receivable

Books

Grit S. Becker and Oliver Everling (Editor): Rating Accounts Receivable: Correctly assess the creditworthiness of business partners, Gabler publishing house – Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH, http://www.gabler.de/, 1st edition, Wiesbaden 2010, 233 pages, ISBN 978 -3-8349-2070-6.

The financial and economic crisis presents politicians with unprecedented challenges of unprecedented scope. The globalization of financial markets and the internationalization of financial relations have reached a level that not only politicians, but also the business community is confronted with unexpected questions and the task of finding new approaches for the identification and management of risks.

While once in national economies with manageable external relations the risks were identifiable and manageable, which result from crisis-driven developments abroad, there is no way of recognizing that even small and medium-sized enterprises can be affected by undesirable developments in other markets even if, as the crisis has shown since 2007, they are starting in segments that initially appear to be as limited as the so-called subprime markets in the USA.

In times of economic improvement, Germany also failed to pursue fiscal consolidation geared towards fiscal consolidation. At the same time, the fiscal conditions for SMEs have not improved over many years. The result is low equity ratios in international comparison. The strengthening of the self-financing capacity of small and medium-sized enterprises is slow due to the currently limited scope for fiscal policy, since first of all crisis management and capping of new debt must be in the foreground. Despite the progress already made in terms of average capital ratios in SMEs, all measures and instruments that are aimed at strengthening the resilience of the economy in times of crisis are important.

Grit S. Becker und Oliver Everling (Herausgeber): Debitorenrating: Bonität von Geschäftspartnern richtig einschätzen, Gabler Verlag – Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH, http://www.gabler.de/, 1. Auflage, Wiesbaden 2010, 233 Seiten, ISBN 978-3-8349-2070-6.

Domestic and Foreign Credit Theory Studies and Standardization Practices

Books

Oliver Everling, Yan Yin and Yusi Ding (Associate Chief Editor, http://www.cnis.gov.cn/): Domestic and Foreign Credit Theory Studies and Standardization Practices, Technical Book Series on Standardization of Social Credit in China, Chen, Yuzhong, und Qian, Yumin (Chief Editor), compiled by National Technical Working Group on Credit of Standardization Administration of China (http://www.sac.gov.cn/), China Metrology Publishing House, Beijing, 1. edition, August 2010, 420 pages, ISBN 978-7-5026-3332-5.

Risk Profiling of Investors: Analyze Customer Profiles and Use Them in Consulting

Books

Oliver Everling and Monika Müller (publisher): Risk profiling of investors: aptly analyze customer profiles and use them in consulting, Bank-Verlag Medien GmbH, Cologne, http://www.bank-verlag-shop.de/product_info.php/products_id/ 869, 1st edition 2009, 534 pages, item no. 22,443-0900, ISBN 978-3-86556-222-7.

Consultants must ensure that their investment recommendation matches the risk type and viability of the client.

Both economic and psychological aspects are important. An economic aspect of the risk assessment is, for example, the financial situation of the customer, which represents an important cornerstone of MiFID-compliant advice. These include the individual income and assets situation as well as necessary risk buffers. The psychological component deals with the customer’s risk attitude, the previous personal experiences, assessments and personality traits such as risk affinity or safety awareness.

The book presents the most important risk profiling methods and systems for investors, in particular the business and legal scope of concepts, investors’ risk preferences for investigation and documentation.

Oliver Everling und Monika Müller (Herausgeber): Risikoprofiling von Anlegern: Kundenprofile treffend analysieren und in der Beratung nutzen, Bank-Verlag Medien GmbH, Köln, http://www.bank-verlag-shop.de/product_info.php/products_id/869, 1. Auflage 2009, 534 Seiten, Art.-Nr. 22.443-0900, ISBN 978-3-86556-222-7.

Practical Guide to Ratings of Real Estate Portfolios

Books

Oliver Everling and Raphael Slowik (Editor): Practical Guide to Ratings of Real Estate Portfolios, Immobilien Manager Verlag, Cologne, http://www.immobilienmanager.de/, bound edition, 1st edition 2009, 456 pages, ISBN 978-3-89984-197-8.

The book is in the German-speaking world and probably also internationally the first book for the rating of real estate portfolios. Since real estate is increasingly being actively managed by companies, (regional) corporations and foundations as an own asset class, it depends on the valuation and assessment standards that affect both the individual property / project and the portfolio as a whole.

The approaches that have been developed to this end, despite the growing interest of investors, who have to form judgments under more and more direct and indirect variants of the real estate investment, have so far been little known. The book shows the most important procedures and systems of the rating and aims in particular at the business management and legal design possibilities of real estate transactions for the optimization of real estate portfolios. The book sets standards in relation to the relevant questions and starting points.

Oliver Everling und Raphael Slowik (Herausgeber): Praxishandbuch Rating von Immobilienportfolios, Immobilien Manager Verlag, Köln, http://www.immobilienmanager.de/, gebundene Ausgabe, 1. Auflage 2009, 456 Seiten, ISBN 978-3-89984-197-8.

Risk Performance Management: Opportunities for a Better Rating

Books

Reavis Mary Hilz-Ward and Oliver Everling (Publisher): Risk Performance Management: Opportunities for a Better Rating, Betriebswirtschaftlicher Verlag Th. Gabler, Wiesbaden, http://www.gabler-verlag.de/, hardcover, 1st edition 2009, 315 pages, ISBN 978-3-8349-0726-4.

Reavis Mary Hilz-Ward und Oliver Everling (Herausgeber): Risk Performance Management: Chancen für ein besseres Rating, Betriebswirtschaftlicher Verlag Dr. Th. Gabler, Wiesbaden, http://www.gabler-verlag.de/, gebundene Ausgabe, 1. Auflage 2009, 315 Seiten, ISBN 978-3-8349-0726-4.

Rating for Information and Communication Technology Companies

Books

Oliver Everling: Rating for ICT companies, Hessian Ministry of Economic Affairs, Transport and Regional Development, HA Hessen Agentur GmbH, Editorial Team: Dr. Oliver Everling, Dr. Matthias Donath, Wolf-Martin Ahrend and Gabriele Gottschalk, Wiesbaden 2009, http://www.hessen-it.de, hessen-media Volume 53, 166 pages, ISBN 978-3-939358-53-4.

Oliver Everling: Rating für IKT-Unternehmen, Hessisches Ministerium für Wirtschaft, Verkehr und Landesentwicklung, HA Hessen Agentur GmbH, Redaktionsteam: Dr. Oliver Everling, Dr. Matthias Donath, Wolf-Martin Ahrend und Gabriele Gottschalk, Wiesbaden 2009, http://www.hessen-it.de, hessen-media Band 53, 166 Seiten, ISBN 978-3-939358-53-4.

Rating of Retail Real Estate

Books

Oliver Everling, Olaf Jahn and Elisabeth Kammermeier (publisher): Rating of Retail Real Estate: Quality, Potential and Risks Safe Assessment, Betriebswirtschaftlicher Verlag Dr. med. Th. Gabler, Wiesbaden, http://www.gabler-verlag.de, hardcover, 1st edition 2009, 580 pages, ISBN 978-3-8349-0912-1.

Retail real estate, especially shopping centers, are important factors in business life – as trading platforms and therefore also as an investment opportunity. Their economic success is very important to a large number of interest groups. Not only investors, but also traders themselves, retailers, industry service providers, and cities and communities. It shows that reliable valuations and appraisals of retail real estate are highly significant information for a large group of people.

The aim of this book is to provide the reader with all the procedures and standards that are important in the assessment of retail real estate, and thus an investment decision. Essentially, it is important to make the economically important figures transparent, but also the legal, tax and technical aspects are examined in detail.

The broad spectrum of participating authors from financial institutions, facility management, the consulting world and the retail trade itself provides a perspective-rich and comprehensive presentation. The book is interesting for all potential tenants and investors, but also for local authorities.

Oliver Everling, Olaf Jahn und Elisabeth Kammermeier (Herausgeber): Rating von Einzelhandelsimmobilien: Qualität, Potenziale und Risiken sicher bewerten, Betriebswirtschaftlicher Verlag Dr. Th. Gabler, Wiesbaden, http://www.gabler-verlag.de, gebundene Ausgabe, 1. Auflage 2009, 580 Seiten, ISBN 978-3-8349-0912-1.

Credit Analyst

Books

Oliver Everling, Klaus Holschuh and Jens Leker (Editor): Credit Analyst, Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, Munich, http://www.oldenbourg.de, hardcover, 1st edition 2009, 386 pages, ISBN 978-3-486-58688- 6.

The requirements of Basel II set completely new conditions for the lending business. At the same time, a variety of credit products have become increasingly important on the capital markets, from corporate bonds to securitization. The credit and capital markets are growing ever closer together.

Credit risks must be analyzed and managed – in banks as well as on the capital market. More professionalism protects market participants from the consequences of credit crises. The leading training for credit and capital market specialists in the German-speaking region of the renowned DVFA German Association for Financial Analysis and Asset Management thus continues to gain in importance.

As a professional association of investment professionals, DVFA has been implementing the proven postgraduate program CCrA – Certified Credit Analyst for many years. This encompasses both areas – the classic as well as the capital market-oriented lending business – and thus offers a comprehensive and practice-oriented qualification for specialists and executives.

The book is suitable for preparing for participation in the DVFA program, as a constant companion to the degree program, to deepen DVFA’s other education and training offerings, to complement the training of credit and capital market specialists, to refresh knowledge for practitioners and users generally to expand the financial knowledge of credit analysis skills.

Oliver Everling, Klaus Holschuh und Jens Leker (Herausgeber): Credit Analyst , Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, München, http://www.oldenbourg.de, gebundene Ausgabe, 1. Auflage 2009, 386 Seiten, ISBN 978-3-486-58688-6.

Bank Risk Management: Minimum Requirements, Instruments and Strategies for Banks

Books

Oliver Everling and Samuel S. Theodore (publisher): Bank Risk Management: Minimum Requirements, Instruments and Strategies for Banks, Betriebswirtschaftlicher Verlag Th. Gabler, Wiesbaden, http://www.gabler-verlag.de, hardcover, 1st edition 2008, 595 pages, ISBN 978-3-8349-0512-3.

Oliver Everling und Samuel S. Theodore (Herausgeber): Bankrisikomanagement: Mindestanforderungen, Instrumente und Strategien für Banken, Betriebswirtschaftlicher Verlag Dr. Th. Gabler, Wiesbaden, http://www.gabler-verlag.de, gebundene Ausgabe, 1. Auflage 2008, 595 Seiten, ISBN 978-3-8349-0512-3.

Buy, Rent and Lease in the Rating

Books

Christoph J. Börner, Oliver Everling and Robert Soethe (publisher): Buy, Rent and Lease in the Rating: Assessing the Financing Paths of Long-lived Assets Reliably, Betriebswirtschaftlicher Verlag Dr. Th. Gabler, Wiesbaden, http://www.gabler-verlag.de, hardcover, 1st edition 2008, 305 pages, ISBN 978-3-8349-0543-7.

Businesses depend on the use of long-lived assets in their business activities. In addition to the purchase here offer the procurement options in connection with rental and leasing contracts. However, which option is more effective for the respective company can hardly be assessed universally. The complexity of the comparison results from the diversity of objectives and instruments, the different expectations regarding usage patterns and cost structures.

The rating provides a new starting point for comparing the design options of purchase, rent and leasing. The impact of buying, renting or leasing in rating has become even more relevant to the financial management of any company since the entry into force of Basel II. This book systematizes from various perspectives the technical discussion of the effects of purchase, rent or leasing in the rating.

The main topics are:

  • Economic and legal bases
  • Design alternatives according to commercial and tax law as well as IFRS
  • Special features of individual asset classes (real estate, movables, intangible assets)
  • Design options in Ratings

Christoph J. Börner, Oliver Everling und Robert Soethe (Herausgeber): Kauf, Miete und Leasing im Rating:: Finazierungswege langlebiger Wirtschaftsgüter sicher beurteilen, Betriebswirtschaftlicher Verlag Dr. Th. Gabler, Wiesbaden, http://www.gabler-verlag.de, gebundene Ausgabe, 1. Auflage 2008, 305 Seiten, ISBN 978-3-8349-0543-7.

Rating in the Health Care Sector

Books

Oliver Everling and Dieter Kampe (Editor): Rating in the Health Care Sector: Key to Funding Hospitals, Clinics, Rehabilitation Facilities, Business Management Th. Gabler, Wiesbaden, http://www.gabler-verlag.de, hardcover, 1st edition, November 2007, 204 pages, ISBN 978-3-8349-0418-8.

Drastic system change in the German hospital landscape: The introduction of the lump-sum payment until 2009 shifts the responsibility for the costs to the hospital owners. This puts the German hospitals before the most difficult challenge of the post-war period: In addition to the quality of medical care, the economic efficiency of the clinic operation is a central factor.

The investment funds of the state are scarce. The development of private sources of money is of immense importance. It depends crucially on credit rating and evaluation. This book helps clinicians and hospitals to prepare for the best possible source of capital. Experts from science and practice present concepts, criteria and standards for credit assessment in the health care sector. They offer promising solutions, as clinics, clinic associations and other medical institutions can create optimal conditions for financing by financial institutions giving money and other private investors.

Oliver Everling und Dieter Kampe (Herausgeber): Rating im Health-Care-Sektor: Schlüssel zur Finanzierung von Krankenhäusern, Kliniken, Reha-Einrichtungen, Betriebswirtschaftlicher Verlag Dr. Th. Gabler, Wiesbaden, http://www.gabler-verlag.de, gebundene Ausgabe, 1. Auflage, November 2007, 204 Seiten, ISBN 978-3-8349-0418-8.

Handbook Rating

Books

Hans E. Büschgen and Oliver Everling (Publisher): Handbook Rating, Betriebswirtschaftlicher Verlag Th. Gabler, Wiesbaden, http://www.gabler-verlag.de, hardcover, 2nd, updated and expanded edition, March 2007, 843 pages, ISBN 978-3834903013.

Hans E. Büschgen und Oliver Everling (Herausgeber): Handbuch Rating, Betriebswirtschaftlicher Verlag Dr. Th. Gabler, Wiesbaden, http://www.gabler-verlag.de, gebundene Ausgabe, 2., aktualisierte und erweiterte Auflage, März 2007, 843 Seiten, ISBN 978-3834903013.

Rating Software

Books

Werner Gleißner, and Oliver Everling (publisher): Rating Software. Which Products Are Used by Whom ?, Verlag Franz Vahlen, http://www.vahlen.de, Munich 2007, 448 pages, ISBN 978-3-8006-3248-0.

For many medium-sized companies, the question of improving their own rating results is currently being raised, even if they want to compete for debt capital in the future after the Basel consultation paper comes into force in 2006. For this purpose, a variety of rating software offers already exist on the market.

However, as a rule, the software application does not provide sufficient transparency as to which evaluation methods and weighting of the partial results are carried out. Therefore, it makes sense to use a decision support in the choice of rating software and to evaluate the software used accordingly.

In Part I of the book, based on the methodology and the requirements of a rating based on the Basel II Accord, the requirements for a rating software are described by the publishers and their evaluation criteria are presented. In addition, the design variants of the software are systematized. Furthermore, the state and development tendencies of this expanding field of application are shown.

In Part II, well-known authors from the rating advisory sector compare and rate the rating software products available on the market. In doing so, both the scope and the system of presentation are strictly defined for the individual contributions in order to make the comparative assessment objective.

Parts III and IV present various rating software systems, highlighting both bank-specific features and the application of the software and concrete experience reports.

The book is best for specialists and executives of medium-sized companies, credit institutions, tax consultants, auditors and management consultancies.

Werner Gleißner, und Oliver Everling (Herausgeber): Rating-Software. Welche Produkte nutzen wem?, Verlag Franz Vahlen, http://www.vahlen.de, München 2007, 448 Seiten, ISBN 978-3-8006-3248-0.

Financial Rating

Books

Ann-Kristin Achleitner, Oliver Everling and Karl A. Niggemann (Publisher): Financial Rating: Design Options for Improving the Creditworthiness, Betriebswirtschaftlicher Verlag Th. Gabler, Wiesbaden, 1. edition January 2007, http://www.gabler-verlag.de, hardcover, 275 pages, ISBN 978-3-8349-0245-0.

Within the scope of corporate financing, there is a need for each company to document its own balance sheet credit rating. Especially lenders need information about a company’s ability to meet its future payment obligations on time and in full. In this context, a financial rating represents an optimal instrument for the early recognition of impending financial risks for every entrepreneur and is the basis for preparing for negotiations with lenders. This book explains the hard facts and quantitative criteria that are important in the rating and is very practice-oriented. An important focus is the detailed presentation of the annual financial statements analysis and the balance sheet analysis in the rating.

Ann-Kristin Achleitner, Oliver Everling und Karl A. Niggemann (Herausgeber): Finanzrating: Gestaltungsmöglichkeiten zur Verbesserung der Bonität, Betriebswirtschaftlicher Verlag Dr. Th. Gabler, Wiesbaden, 1. Auflage Januar 2007, http://www.gabler-verlag.de, gebundene Ausgabe, 275 Seiten, ISBN 978-3-8349-0245-0.

Succession Rating

Books

Ann-Kristin Achleitner, Oliver Everling and Stefan Klemm (publisher): Successor Rating: Rating as an Opportunity for Company Succession: Rating as an Instrument of Medium-sized Company Succession, Betriebswirtschaftlicher Verlag Th. Gabler, Wiesbaden 1st edition January 2006, http://www.gabler-verlag.de, hardcover, 366 pages, ISBN 3-409-14327-0.

The topics “medium-sized business succession” and “rating” are closely interwoven. At the latest when the bank adapts the credit terms with the reference to the age and the unresolved succession question of the entrepreneur to the increased credit default risk from their point of view, it is worth analyzing the underlying relationships.

Basel II motivates banks to adjust the loan terms to the respective risk assessment of the borrower. At the same time, banking supervision does not stick to qualitative direction. Rather, it is precisely prescribed with how much equity the bank has to deposit loans of different risk classes. In addition, Basel II provides guidelines for the design of bank-internal rating systems.

The systematic recording and evaluation of factors such as an “existing emergency planning” or “existing succession planning” are the consequence. A lack of succession planning leads more frequently than before Basel II to significantly worse credit conditions up to the refusal of credits. Even the good personal relationship with the corporate customer service can not help here.

With the concretization of the Basel II guidelines by the banks and thus systematization of the evaluation of the credit risk, the leeway of the account managers disappears. Here we see a focus of the editorial volume – with up-to-date reference and direct assistance for the concerned entrepreneur. The present book shows internal views of the bank’s internal rating. The underlying regulations are presented and explained in detail. It will be shown where creative leeway opens up and how individual banks implement the requirements. This explanatory information is followed by concrete help for the entrepreneur. In doing so, the relation to succession is always established and the meaning of the controlled succession planning as an input parameter of the rating is reflected.

Ann-Kristin Achleitner, Oliver Everling und Stefan Klemm (Herausgeber): Nachfolgerating: Rating als Chance für die Unternehmensnachfolge: Rating als Instrument der mittelständischen Unternehmensnachfolge, Betriebswirtschaftlicher Verlag Dr. Th. Gabler, Wiesbaden 1. Auflage Januar 2006, http://www.gabler-verlag.de, gebundene Ausgabe, 366 Seiten, ISBN 3-409-14327-0.

Basel II: Rating for IT-companies

Books

Oliver Everling: Basel II: Rating for IT Companies, Hessian Ministry of Economic Affairs, Transport and Regional Development, HA Hessen Agentur GmbH, Wiesbaden 1st edition 2006, http://www.hessen-it.de, hessen-media volume 53, 100 pages, ISBN 978-3-939358-53-4.

Oliver Everling: Basel II: Rating für IT-Unternehmen, Hessisches Ministerium für Wirtschaft, Verkehr und Landesentwicklung, HA Hessen Agentur GmbH, Wiesbaden 1. Auflage 2006, http://www.hessen-it.de, hessen-media Band 53, 100 Seiten, ISBN 978-3-939358-53-4.

Capital Market Rating

Books

Oliver Everling and Jens Schmidt-Bürgel (publisher): Capital Market Rating: Perspectives for Corporate Financing, Betriebswirtschaftlicher Verlag Th. Gabler, Wiesbaden 1st edition December 2005, http://www.gabler-verlag.de, hardcover, 318 pages, ISBN 3-409-14242-8.

The financing requirements for companies have changed considerably in recent years. There is a trend from bank-oriented to capital-market-driven financing culture, and corporate bonds are becoming an increasingly important form of financing. Capital market ratings reflect the ability and willingness of a company to fully and timely meet its payment obligations under its debt obligations. This makes them an important instrument for assessing and communicating the future viability of the issuer. For investors, capital market ratings are a tool to assess the credit risk of fixed income securities they wish to buy or sell. Leading investors worldwide rely on ratings, which in turn gives companies a secure and flexible way to raise capital.

In the anthology “Kapitalmarktrating” renowned experts give a practical insight into the process of capital market rating, prerequisites for a good rating, instruments and methods of risk identification and control.

Oliver Everling und Jens Schmidt-Bürgel (Herausgeber): Kapitalmarktrating: Perspektiven für die Unternehmensfinanzierung, Betriebswirtschaftlicher Verlag Dr. Th. Gabler, Wiesbaden 1. Auflage Dezember 2005, http://www.gabler-verlag.de, gebundene Ausgabe, 318 Seiten, ISBN 3-409-14242-8.

Legal Issues in Ratings

Books, News, Notching, Platforms, Procedures, Registrations, Regulations, Repositories

Ann-Kristin Achleitner and Oliver Everling (Editor): Legal Issues in Ratings: Fundamentals and Implications of Ratings for Agencies, Investors and Companies Advised, Betriebswirtschaftlicher Verlag Th. Gabler, Wiesbaden 1st edition November 2005, http://www.gabler-verlag.de, hardcover, 470 pages, ISBN 3-409-14314-9.

The issuing of ratings by external rating agencies as well as internal ratings are of increasing relevance for the refinancing processes as well as for investment decisions on the part of investors. The book outlines the main legal implications of ratings for agencies, investors and rated companies.

Ann-Kristin Achleitner und Oliver Everling (Herausgeber): Rechtsfragen im Rating: Grundlagen und Implikationen von Ratings für Agenturen, Investoren und geratete Unternehmen, Betriebswirtschaftlicher Verlag Dr. Th. Gabler, Wiesbaden 1. Auflage November 2005, http://www.gabler-verlag.de, gebundene Ausgabe, 470 Seiten, ISBN 3-409-14314-9.

Insurance Rating

Books

Ann-Kristin Achleitner and Oliver Everling (Editor): Insurance Rating: Background – Structures – Processes, Betriebswirtschafter Verlag Th. Gabler, Wiesbaden 1st edition March 2005, http://www.gabler-verlag.de, hardcover, 400 pages, ISBN 3-409-12716-X.

In this anthology, renowned experts give a practical insight into the process of rating of insurance companies, approaches of rating agencies, requirements for a good valuation, tools and methods of risk identification and control.

Ann-Kristin Achleitner und Oliver Everling (Herausgeber): Versicherungsrating: Hintergrund – Strukturen – Prozesse , Betriebswirtschaftlicher Verlag Dr. Th. Gabler, Wiesbaden 1. Auflage März 2005, http://www.gabler-verlag.de, gebundene Ausgabe, 400 Seiten, ISBN 3-409-12716-X.

Start-up Rating

Books

Ann-Kristin Achleitner and Oliver Everling (Publisher): Start-up Rating: Rating of Young Companies (German Edition), Betriebswirtschaftlicher Verlag Th. Gabler, Wiesbaden 1st edition August 2004, http://www.gabler-verlag.de, hardcover, 516 pages, ISBN 3-409-12572-8.

The classification of the future opportunities of a start-up project by rating – presentation of the business fields, products and services, the prognosis of the incomes and expenditures, the calculation of essential characteristic numbers and the evaluation of financing instruments up to the description of expected market developments – help the company founder to understand his chances and properly evaluate his enterprise. A good rating result provides support in negotiations with investors.

This practice-oriented book goes a long way from the consideration of the rating events, rating instruments to the concrete benefit of the rating for start-ups. It also offers recommendations for action to improve the rating result and includes reports from successful start-up founders.

Professor Dr. Ann-Kristin Achleitner is holder of the KfW Endowed Chair for Entrepreneurial Finance and Scientific Director of the Center for Entrepreneurial and Finance Studies at the Technical University of Munich, Honorary Professor at the European Business School and Privatdozentin for Finance and Accounting at the University of St. Gallen.

Dr. Oliver Everling is the founder and owner of Everling Advisory Services, Frankfurt am Main, a provider of consulting services, publications and rating events. He is the publisher and author of numerous books and specialist articles on rating.

Ann-Kristin Achleitner und Oliver Everling (Herausgeber): Existenzgründerrating: Rating junger Unternehmen (German Edition), Betriebswirtschaftlicher Verlag Dr. Th. Gabler, Wiesbaden 1. Auflage August 2004, http://www.gabler-verlag.de, gebundene Ausgabe, 516 Seiten, ISBN 3-409-12572-8.

Rating ABC

Books

Oliver Everling and Ottmar Schneck: The Rating ABC, Weinheim 1st edition June 2004, Wiley -VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, http://www.wiley-vch.de, 136 pages, ISBN 3-527-50126-6 ,

Oliver Everling und Ottmar Schneck: Das Rating ABC, Weinheim 1. Auflage Juni 2004, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, http://www.wiley-vch.de, 136 Seiten, ISBN 3-527-50126-6.

Ottmar Schneck und Oliver Everling: Das Rating ABC, Köln 1. Auflage Juni 2004, Bank-Verlag GmbH, http://www.bank-verlag-shop.de, Artikel-Nummer 22.333-04, 136 Seiten, ISBN 3-86556-088-1.

Rating Practice Manual

Books

Ann-Kristin Achleitner and Oliver Everling (Publisher): Rating Practice Manual: Answers to the Challenge Basel II, Betriebswirtschaftlicher Verlag Th. Gabler, Wiesbaden 1st edition May 2004, http://www.gabler-verlag.de, hardcover, 952 pages, ISBN 3-409-12523-X.

How is the rating market organized? What is the best possible preparation for a rating? How can you use and improve ratings? Renowned experts point the way to optimal credit rating and favorable conditions.

Ann-Kristin Achleitner und Oliver Everling (Herausgeber): Handbuch Ratingpraxis: Antworten auf die Herausforderung Basel II, Betriebswirtschaftlicher Verlag Dr. Th. Gabler, Wiesbaden 1. Auflage Mai 2004, http://www.gabler-verlag.de, gebundene Ausgabe, 952 Seiten, ISBN 3-409-12523-X.

Bank Rating

Books

Oliver Everling and Karl-Heinz Goedeckemeyer (publisher): Bank Ratings: Banks under Scrutiny, Dr. Th. Gabler, Wiesbaden 1st edition April 2004, http://www.gabler-verlag.de, hardcover, 581 pages, ISBN 3-409-12513-2.

There is a close correlation between the rating of a bank or savings bank by a rating agency and the rating created by a credit institution: Only if the bank is able to correctly assess and manage its own risk potential can it receive a positive rating from a rating agency. This is of central importance, because credit rating agencies de facto dictate to banks on what conditions they can place financial instruments on the international money and capital markets and obtain capital and thus fulfill their economic functions.

In this anthology, renowned experts give a practical insight into the process of bank rating, explain prerequisites for a good rating and explain instruments and methods of risk identification and control. The book also provides impulses for the theoretical discussion of the role of rating agencies.

Oliver Everling und Karl-Heinz Goedeckemeyer (Herausgeber): Bankenrating: Kreditinstitute auf dem Prüfstand, Betriebswirtschaftlicher Verlag Dr. Th. Gabler, Wiesbaden 1. Auflage April 2004, http://www.gabler-verlag.de, gebundene Ausgabe, 581 Seiten, ISBN 3-409-12513-2.

Fund Rating

Books

Ann-Kristin Achleitner and Oliver Everling (publisher): Fund Rating: Quality Measurement on the Test Bench – Methods, Criteria and Benefits, Betriebswirtschaftlicher Verlag Th. Gabler, Wiesbaden 1st edition December 2003, http://www.gabler-verlag.de, hardcover, 338 pages, ISBN 3-409-15012-9.

Private and institutional investors are facing an ever-growing supply. More and more mutual funds are on offer. Against this background, the demand for the most compact and clear information on the quality of fund products is growing. For the first time, this book brings together the views of major rating agencies on the valuation of investment funds and asset managers and presents them independently. It is clear that there are still significant differences, and standards in the fund industry are evolving.

Ann-Kristin Achleitner und Oliver Everling (Herausgeber): Fondsrating: Qualitätsmessung auf dem Prüfstand – Verfahren, Kriterien und Nutzen, Betriebswirtschaftlicher Verlag Dr. Th. Gabler, Wiesbaden 1. Auflage Dezember 2003, http://www.gabler-verlag.de, gebundene Ausgabe, 338 Seiten, ISBN 3-409-15012-9.

Rating Advisory

Books

Ann-Kristin Achleitner and Oliver Everling (Editor): Rating Advisory: With Professional Advice to the Optimal Credit Rating, Dr. Th. Gabler, Wiesbaden 1st edition October 2003, http://www.gabler-verlag.de, 396 pages, hardcover, ISBN 3-409-15010-2.

Ann-Kristin Achleitner und Oliver Everling (Herausgeber): Rating Advisory: Mit professioneller Beratung zum optimalen Bonitätsurteil
, Betriebswirtschaftlicher Verlag Dr. Th. Gabler, Wiesbaden 1. Auflage Oktober 2003, www.gabler.de, 396 Seiten, gebundene Ausgabe, ISBN 3-409-15010-2.

Rating Lexicon

Books

Oliver Everling and Walburga Sarcher: Rating Encyclopedia, Bank-Verlag Cologne 2003, http://www.bank-verlag.de, paperback, 188 pages, order number 22.297-02.

Oliver Everling und Walburga Sarcher: Rating-Lexikon, Deutscher Sparkassen Verlag, http://www.dsv-gruppe.de, FachBibliothek Finanzierung, 192 Seiten, Taschenbuch, IV-2003 301 021 000.

Oliver Everling und Walburga Sarcher: Rating-Lexikon, VÖB Service, Berlin 2003, http://www.voeb-service.de, Taschenbuch, 192 Seiten, ISBN-Nr. 3-927466-81-6.

Oliver Everling und Walburga Sarcher: Rating-Lexikon, Bank-Verlag Köln 2003, http://www.bank-verlag.de, Taschenbuch, 188 Seiten, Bestell-Nummer 22.297-02.

Rating – Opportunity for SMEs According to Basel II

Books

Oliver Everling (Publisher): Rating – Opportunity for SMEs according to Basel II. Concepts for Credit Assessment, Key to Financing, Betriebswirtschaftlicher Verlag Th. Gabler, Wiesbaden 1st edition December 2001, http://www.gabler-verlag.de, hardcover, 700 pages, ISBN 3-409-11812-8.

As recently as the 1980s, ratings in the German-speaking world were regarded as a peculiarity of the US capital markets. At that time, ratings and rating agencies in at least 50 countries were also widespread outside the United States. At first it seemed that differences in the financial systems were responsible for the fact that ratings did not spread in Germany: the universal banking system here, the segregation banking system there. Too big were the opposites. On the one side of the Atlantic, virtually every company present on the capital market was already equipped with ratings, on the other side of which the circle of rated companies was limited to those that served the international financial markets. Even for this circle the relevance of ratings had to be questioned.

What benefit should be associated with the classification of globally known “first” addresses? So the creditworthiness of such companies in financial circles was long known! However, it was precisely the Siemens group that was the first address in the industry in Germany to be rated as an independent agency. “Rating” has long since developed into an indispensable business card on the international financial markets. Those who were above any credit rating found that rating was a crucial additional element of building trust among financiers. For business partners around the world, the rating is the essential signal for assessing the viability of a company.

Oliver Everling (Herausgeber): Rating – Chance für den Mittelstand nach Basel II. Konzepte zur Bonitätsbeurteilung, Schlüssel zur Finanzierung, Betriebswirtschaftlicher Verlag Dr. Th. Gabler, Wiesbaden 1. Auflage Dezember 2001, http://www.gabler-verlag.de, gebundene Ausgabe, 700 Seiten, ISBN 3-409-11812-8.

Credit Rating by International Agencies

Books

Oliver Everling: Credit Rating by International Agencies, Dr. Th. Gabler, Wiesbaden 1991, http://www.gabler-verlag.de, bound issue, 349 pages, ISBN 3-409-14205-3.

This book is the first book in German language on the topic of credit rating by international agencies. The work was accepted for doctoral studies as an Inauguraldissertation at the University of Cologne. It is the first dissertation on rating. The book laid the foundation for hundreds of other scientific papers as well as doctoral theses and books.

Oliver Everling: Credit Rating durch internationale Agenturen , Betriebswirtschaftlicher Verlag Dr. Th. Gabler, Wiesbaden 1991, http://www.gabler-verlag.de, gebundene Ausgabe, 349 Seiten, ISBN 3-409-14205-3.

Technology Rating

Books

Oliver Everling, Sven-Matthias Riedel and Pierre Weimerskirch (publisher): Technology Rating: New Decision-Making Aids for High-Tech Investors, Dr. Th. Gabler, Wiesbaden 2000, http://www.gabler-verlag.de, hardcover, 301 pages, ISBN 3-409-11483-1.

Oliver Everling, Sven-Matthias Riedel und Pierre Weimerskirch (Herausgeber): Technology-Rating: Neue Entscheidungshilfen für Hightech-Investoren, Betriebswirtschaftlicher Verlag Dr. Th. Gabler, Wiesbaden 2000, http://www.gabler-verlag.de, gebundene Ausgabe, 301 Seiten, ISBN 3-409-11483-1.

Boat Rating System

Agencies, Associations, Read, Systems

When searching for the term “rating system”, you might come across a rating system for boats. Boats of different sizes and characteristics would not have an equal chance to win in races. The rating system for boats shall correct their elapsed time difference and put them on the same level. Boat owners, sailors, designers and handicappers are always looking for solutions that work as boat designs change with time.

Under these circumstances, an ideal rating system is said to have features like fairness to all boats, from cruisers to racers, with no strong typeforms in design, being open, transparent and freely available with rules that are objective, non-biased and open to input. Ratings should be simple, but accurate, have flexible scoring options for use with different course types, be easy to use and understand and be locally managed but available world wide.

Science and technology was used to develop handicap systems. With a complete set of measurement of the hull with appendages, propeller, stability, rig and sails, it is then possible to use computer software to calculate the theoretical speeds for the boat in various wind conditions. Experts in aero and hydrodynamic science are involved to tell you the performance differences between different boats in different wind conditions and course geometries.

Some tough questions can be answered with the rating system, such as at what wind speed and wind angle will the asymmetric spinnaker be faster than the jib or genoa while reaching. The rating system does not compare the characteristics of one boat to another; it measures how a racing crew can reach their boat’s theoretical performance potential. Such a system can only indirectly affect investment in boats.

The rating systems have no secret factors, everything is calculated and documented, and is available to an even broader audience. The boat rating systems are based on science and complete boat measurement with no guessing or any subjective element. The system helps to understand the theoretically possible performance of boats and to some extent also influence the choice of a boat. The boat rating systems are administered by national rating offices established worldwide in each country that has active offshore rating.

Vision

History and Future of Ratings

Histories, Read

In the 1980’s we at RATING EVIDENCE GmbH got to know ratings of American agencies. Even back then, these agencies were 80 years old, since they started operating shortly after the turn of the century. For decades, there were comparatively few changes in these agencies, as it was not until the 1980s that computers became available that significantly changed the rules by which ratings could be created and disseminated.

The new information and communication technologies, coupled with advanced data processing, have enabled more data to be considered in the rating than ever before, as well as to deliver results to a wider audience. While US agencies were present in only a few dozen countries in the 1980s, today they are in more than 110 countries.

With the emergence of new financial products, the areas of application of ratings also widened. Today, there is hardly any financial product that would not also be accessible to a rating. Due to the strong regulation of financial products, and in particular due to the different intervention of governments in the financial markets, numerous different rating approaches have developed. It is therefore important to work towards the comparability of ratings in order to provide investors with a better basis for decision-making.

In the future, social credit systems will play an increasingly important role as they imply an even more comprehensive judgment on natural and legal persons.

Vision

History and Future of Ratings

Histories

In the 1980’s we at RATING EVIDENCE GmbH got to know the rating of American agencies. Even back then, these agencies were 80 years old, since they started operating shortly after the turn of the century. For decades, there were comparatively few changes in these agencies, as it was not until the 1980s that computers became available that significantly changed the rules by which ratings could be created and disseminated.

The new information and communication technologies, coupled with advanced data processing, have enabled more data to be considered in the rating than ever before, as well as to deliver results to a wider audience. While US agencies were present in only a few dozen countries in the 1980s, today they are in more than 110 countries.

With the emergence of new financial products, the areas of application of ratings also widened. Today, there is hardly any financial product that would not also be accessible to a rating. Due to the strong regulation of financial products, and in particular due to the different intervention of governments in the financial markets, numerous different rating approaches have developed. It is therefore important to work towards the comparability of ratings in order to provide investors with a better basis for decision-making.

In the future, social credit systems will play an increasingly important role as they imply an even more comprehensive judgment on natural and legal persons.

Referral-based Businesses

Read, Roles

How many people actually trust recommendations from friends about using a business? More and more, research shows. The percentage of people trusting recommendations from friends has been increasing. This has led to an increasing number von referral-based businesses.

Neither on main street, nor on the world wide web is it sufficient to just open a shop and wait. In many cities corner shops passed away so that less people expect to find what they look for by just walking around. Take your smartphone and look up what your friends have recommended is the way instead.

A referral-based business is a business where all of the clients come in through referrals. Leads and clients come from others recommending the business to their family, friends, and colleagues and explaining why it is a good idea to use it for something. Some estimate that more than 80 percent are trusting recommendations from people they knew. The share might be decreasing due to more reliable ratings done by specialized rating agencies, but the popularity of personal recommendations is still high.

Referral-based business rely on customer service, regardless of the area they operate in. It is a key element of the success that lays out the foundation for referrals and future business. People seek professionals who know what they’re doing, not Jacks-of-all-Trades. When a company builds a strong reputation around one thing, it becomes incredibly easy for people to refer the company to others. Any business should strive to become someone the customers want to be around and trust. People don’t do business with companies, but other people. It is easier for us to connect with something we can trust. Can someone trust the mission statement and stunning website, is the queistion. If businesses are not getting sufficient referrals because they fail to ask current clients for them, they simply tell theirs customers about their desire to grow their business and politely ask them to recommend them.

Rating of Asset Management

Books

Oliver Everling and Jürgen Lampe (Publisher): Rating of asset management (Edition Frankfurt School), Springer Gabler Verlag, Wiesbaden, http://www.springer-gabler.de/, Wiesbaden 2018, ISBN 978-3-658-23792-9 ,

For the first time, this book provides an overview of practice-related assessment approaches for asset management. With respect to new information and communication technologies, it explains the impact of ratings, rankings and scoring on workflows, service processes and asset management efficiency. In addition, it discusses how communication between financial service providers and customers will change as a result of transparent assessment criteria. In this way, this work addresses the (customer) need for transparency of consulting services in the financial sector.

Oliver Everling und Jürgen Lampe (Herausgeber): Rating von Vermögensverwaltungen (Edition Frankfurt School), Springer Gabler Verlag, Wiesbaden, http://www.springer-gabler.de/, Wiesbaden 2018, ISBN 978-3-658-23792-9.

Rating German Care Industry

Read, Reports

In Germany, very tenth inhabitant will be at least 80 years old in 2060. The German care industry will soon face a very high investment requirement. By 2060, more than 5,800 additional full-time nursing home places might be needed each year.

The 65-year-olds and older people are steadily increasing. Immigration and a rising birth rate can not prevent the aging of society. In 2060, just under 23.6 million people will be over 65 years old. This represents an increase of 32 percent compared to 2018.

According to nursing statistics, in 2017, 92.5 percent of full-time care-dependent people in care were aged 65 and over, making them the main demand group. The demand for full-time care of 65-year-olds and older people amounted to 4.27 percent in Germany, reaching a new record high.

In a conservative approach, which requires constant proportions of the outpatient and inpatient sector and a constant nursing rate, in the year 2060 around 1 million people in need of care would need a full-time home. This represents an increase of more than 33 percent compared to 2017. With an average size of 80 places per home, around 74 fully residential nursing homes would have to be built annually by 2060. From 2011 to 2017, the nursing rate has increased. If this trend continues, by 2060 there would even be a significantly higher demand for full-time care places.

This does not take account of any federal building regulations, which can once again create an immense additional need for new construction, since, for example, legally required single occupancy rates cause a loss of care places. In addition, due to ramshackle building structures, the increasing demands and the elimination of multiple expiring grandfathering additional buildings are required.

Solvency Index

Bureaus, Definitions, Read

A solvency index is the central pillar of a commercial report and other information formats for evaluating a business’s solvency. Its accurate forecasts of the probability of default (PD) provide for quick and direct assessment of a customer’s solvency – and consequently also the customer’s credit worthiness.

The solvency index calculation techniques vary and are continually evolving, employing proven mathematical and statistical analysis methods. These advances not only take structural changes in the economic structure, but also factors such as changing PDs in the individual market segments, into account.

The solvency index’s forecasting accuracy is also attributed to an extensive database. At a leading German credit bureau, it has increased significantly over the past few years – not only in terms of 10 million accounts now published, but also regarding industry key performance indicators and in the payment-experience field. The debtors’ register of this credit bureau alone, for example, gives access to over 100 million payment experiences in Germany.

Driving Fitness Rating System

Definitions, Read, Scales, Scores, Symbols, Systems

On May 1, 2014, the German Central Register of Traffic (VZR) became the Driving Fitness Register (FAER). The existing scoring system was converted to the new driving fitness rating system.The basis for this is the fifth law amending the Road Traffic Act and other laws of August 28, 2013 and the Ninth Ordinance amending the Driving Licenses Ordinance (FeV) and other road traffic regulations from November 5, 2013.

A prerequisite for a scoring in the driving fitness rating system is on the one hand a listing of the infringement in Appendix 13 to § 40 FeV and in the case of misdemeanors on the other hand, the fine imposed at least 60 euros.

Unlike in the VZR, the FAER only records the decisions on misdemeanors which have an impact on the safety of road traffic. Administrative offenses such as the prohibited entry into an environmental zone are no longer stored in the FAER. Therefore, the decisions that were stored in the VZR until the end of the April 30, 2014 and that can not be saved according to the new rules for the FAER, were deleted on May 1, 2014.

Only the fact that the infringement is listed in Annex 13 to Section 40 FeV is decisive for the storage. In this context, however, it is not necessary for the fine to be at least EUR 60, since the registration limit at the time of the commission of the administrative offense (before May 1, 2014) was 40. euro.

However, fines that are no longer to be stored in the FAER are appropriately increased.The entries stored in the FAER are provided to the driving license authorities for the purpose of checking the fitness to drive.

In place of the previous points system with an assessment of offenses of 1 to 7 points, the driving fitness rating system was established with new ratings. According to this, the registered offenses or misdemeanors are divided into the following categories depending on their importance for traffic safety (§ 4 (2) Road Traffic Act (StVG)):

  • 3 points: Offenses related to traffic safety or equivalent offenses if the driving license has been withdrawn or if a lock-up period has been granted for the issue of a driving license
  • 2 points: Offenses related to traffic safety or equivalent offenses without removal of the driving license or without a waiting period for the issue of a driving license; particularly traffic safety impairing or equivalent offenses
  • 1 point: Traffic offenses or equivalent offenses

China’s Social Credit System

Experts, Histories, Systems, Tools

The Social Credit System (SCS) is perhaps the most prominent manifestation of the Chinese government’s intention to reinforce legal, regulatory and policy processes through the application of information technology, writes Rogier Creemers, Van Vollenhoven Institute at Leiden University. Yet its organizational specifics have not yet received academic scrutiny. He published a paper which identifies the objectives, perspectives and mechanisms through which the Chinese government has sought to realise its vision of “social credit”.

Reviewing the system’s historical evolution, institutional structure, central and local implementation, and relationship with the private sector, he describes the SCS as an ecosystem of initiatives broadly sharing a similar underlying logic, than a fully unified and integrated machine for social control. With regards to big data and artificial intelligence notwithstanding, he sees the SCS as a relatively crude tool.

See his video or read his paper here.

For more historic background information: Oliver Everling, Yan Yin and Yusi Ding (Herausgeber, Associate Chief Editor, http://www.cnis.gov.cn/): Domestic and Foreign Credit Theory Studies and Standardization Practices, Technical Book Series on Standardization of Social Credit in China, Chen, Yuzhong, und Qian, Yumin (Chief Editor), compiled by National Technical Working Group on Credit of Standardization Administration of China (http://www.sac.gov.cn/), China Metrology Publishing House, Beijing, 1. Auflage, August 2010, 420 Seiten, ISBN 978-7-5026-3332-5.

Rating Fund of Funds

Performance, Read

An umbrella fund is a collective investment scheme that exists as a single legal entity but has several distinct sub-funds. Whether umbrella or common investment funds have performed better over a period of ten years, was the key question in a recent study. According to the study, common investment funds are on average better performers More than 150 fully convincing funds of funds were identified. More than 800 funds of the four largest, globally investing mixed fund categories were considered.

In each of the four peer groups, common investment funds achieve on average more performance than funds of funds. The biggest performance difference between umbrella and common investment funds lies in the peer group “Mixed funds globally balanced”: While the almost 100 common investment funds return an average annual return of 5.5%, the 71 funds of funds of this peer group generate on average only 4.6%, a performance difference of at least 0.9% p.a. over a period of ten years.

The lowest performance differences are shown by the funds of the peer group “Mixed Funds Global Dynamic”. Almost no difference is measurable here (individual title funds are marginally ahead). All funds average 6.6% p.a. in the past ten years.

The differences in volatility are comparatively low, since a fund of funds is a multi-manager investment, a pooled investment fund that invests in other types of funds. In other words, its portfolio contains different underlying portfolios of other funds. 

In two of the four peer groups considered, the single-title funds are even slightly ahead. This means that they have lower volatility on average. Only in the “Mixed Funds Global Conservative” peer group – which combines mixed funds with low-risk profiles – did fund of funds show a perceptibly lower volatility of 4.4% on average of 3.5% than common investment funds.

That funds of funds achieve less performance is due to the additional cost burden expected. However, despite the broader diversification, they offer hardly any appreciable volatility advantages. One explanation: common investment funds already have a broadly diversified portfolio. Even further diversification through funds brings little diversification benefits.

Nevertheless, more than 150 funds of funds create a top rating. Even though fund-of-funds concepts in the multi-asset sector have less performance in the average analysis presented here and hardly any volatility advantages, there are still numerous funds of funds that deliver convincing results.

Out of around 550 funds of funds in the four peer groups examined, 154 currently hold a top rating (equivalent to a ratio of 28%). Funds with a top rating usually outperform the respective peer group average.

It is noticeable that in three of the four comparison groups considered, the top rating quota of the funds of funds is higher than that of the individual-unit funds. This is most evident in the peer group “Mischfonds Global Dynamik”, in which 37% of the funds of funds hold a top rating. The single-title funds in this group only reach a top rating of 26%.

residential location

Scoring Sustainable Residential Locations

Criteria, Read

What constitutes future-oriented residential areas? The answer is complex and can not be answered in a general or even complete manner for all residential real estate between Norderney and Berchtesgaden. A recent study searched for similarities that characterize future-proof and long-term profitable housing, and examines these success criteria more closely.

Ten macro-location and nine micro-location criteria with a particularly large impact on the future viability of residential real estate were identified. These macro and micro factors were evaluated.

This scoring does not just consider the macro criteria that determine the future viability of an entire city. For the first time, the scoring combines these insights with microcriteria that refer to a single location, a self-contained neighborhood or borough. The particular challenge lies in the selection of the set of criteria on the micro level. Living is very individual, the requirements of people vary depending on their life model, age and preferences.

The quantitative basis for the analysis is provided by the scoring, which combines macro and micro aspects using a standardized, specially developed tool for the initial assessment of residential areas. For the analysis, data from 30 German cities (“macro locations”) and 30 city districts according to KGS 12 (“micro locations”) were collected, examined and evaluated. In doing so, attention was paid to a balanced geographical distribution and the inclusion of residential locations from all clusters of cities in order to achieve the most realistic possible representation of the overall market. With regard to residential locations, the approach distinguishes between macro-location and micro-location criteria.

Some of the criteria show an inventory, such as security or affordability. Others are strongly forward-looking, such as forecasts of population growth and sustainable housing demand. Each of the criteria is then evaluated by means of defined value classes on a scale of one to five, one representing the lowest value and five the highest value.

The individual results are aggregated and add up to a score for the selected macro and micro-situation. The microvariable “Attractiveness of the residential area” is overweighted in the model because it consists of different subcriteria. All other variables are included equally in the scoring.

The study may offer helpful pointers and landmarks. From the perspective of long-term oriented investors, approaches for own investment strategies can be derived.

Meaning of Rating Evidence

Definitions, Performance, Read

Deciding on investment and financing means choosing between alternatives. Every investment and financing decision is a choice between alternatives. There are worse alternatives, better ones or equally good or equally bad ones. The classification of the decision options we call rating.

One focus of our work is on credit ratings. The credit rating we record is an opinion on the economic ability, legal obligation and willingness of an economic entity to meet its payment obligations in full and on time in the long term. The judgment is expressed in terms of scales and symbols commonly used internationally and in the financial systems of more than 110 countries in the world.

RATING EVIDENCE does not award ratings according to idiosyncratic criteria and is not a rating agency, but instead started in 2004 to research evidence-based ratings. In particular, this includes information from the following sources: rating agencies, banks, credit insurers, credit bureaus, research firms, analysts as well as the rated organization itself.

As market economies face a greater or lesser risk of default, all market participants have a priori probabilities of default and bankruptcy. These a-priori probabilities can be corrected upwards or downwards by taking data from the above-mentioned sources and mapped onto generally accepted rating scales. Depending on the evidential value of the data collected, the rating thus determined results in varying levels of evidence, which are expressed by RATING EVIDENCE on the basis of a percentage (0% for no to 100% for complete evidence).

Evidence of Ratings

Definitions, Read, Scales

Similar to the visual acuity of the eye, rating systems also recognize patterns and contours with different accuracy.

You may have already experienced it with your ophthalmologist: An “8” is considered a “B”, a “c” is confused with an “e”, and so on. The resolution of the eyes is different. The same is true of rating models and methods of classifying the creditworthiness of economic units. Each rating also has the dimension of different evidence.

Maybe your rating was just turned on the wheel of fortune? It may happen to some debtors or disappointed investors. If there is no correlation at all between the rating given and the actual probability of default, the evidence of the rating would be zero, 0%. Only theoretically can the evidence reach 100% absolute judgmental certainty. An unplayed dice or a state-controlled, notarized lottery game gives examples of probability judgments that can be given with almost absolute certainty.

Another example: Your good gut feeling may allow you to assess tomorrow’s weather conditions. The evidence is low, but maybe you’re lucky and in line with your prognosis. However, the German Weather Service works according to the DWD law with more extensive resources and far-reaching responsibility for the meteorological security of maritime and aviation and official warning. Scientifically, these forecasts are based on higher evidence. What applies to the weather forecast applies in this sense for any kind of rating result. If you do not even use the thermometer and the barometer for the prediction, you often miss the prognosis.

Another example: An unzinked die rolls a one with a one-sixth chance. Thus, a rating system that assigns to this event exactly this probability of 16.6 …% and not erroneously a higher (e.g., 20%) or lower (e.g., 10%) probability is better justified by empirical facts.

In the case of credit rating, the more highly accurate information on default risk estimates can be made available, the more likely it is to provide a high quality, accurate rating. Numerous sources of information help to find a high-evidence rating. The rated company itself can play a key role in determining an accurate rating by providing you with well-known credit rating information and by explaining the extent of its involvement in the judgment of these institutions.

Understand the meaning of “rating evidence”.

Rating Referral Marketing Businesses

Criteria, Experts, Read

“There is no recognizable path ahead of us, but only behind us,” writes Gabi Steiner in her book “From Person to Person – Earning a Stable Income From Referral Marketing“. Any rating of the future prospects of a business model can only be based on the information that humanity has gathered to date. “Successful people,” Gabi Steiner points out, “act on the basis of verified information. Unsuccessful people act on the basis of unchecked prejudices.”

“It makes me sad when I hear that someone reduces this opportunity to earning money,” writes Gabi Steiner. Rather, she is concerned with ideal values, such as a high degree of freedom and independence, and a way to “make and maintain friendships, get to know other people, customs and, above all, the luxury of ‘time’ for health, family, friends and to have hobbies. “

By referral marketing, she understands “a simple concept to bring products directly from the manufacturer to the consumer, and money that is typically spent on conventional distribution and advertising sales methods is instead paid to those who bring others to the product for their own use.”

With entertaining examples, Gabi Steiner makes it clear that referral marketing is not about sales. Selling is much more the consequence of buying – when it comes to products that are suitable for everyone, this is okay for everybody.

The new information and communication technologies also make a consumer network possible online – with new dimensions for network marketing. For referral marketing, “what’s important, what we really need, what’s in the trend, is an industry with growth potential, with a future.” This is how Gabi Steiner outlines wellness, fitness, health and anti-aging or even “best aging”.

“Network marketing works best,” says Gabi Steiner, quoting Richard Poe, “if you just keep working face-to-face and heart-to-heart with people on a daily basis. The only glue that keeps a network together for a long time consists of friendship, loyalty and personal relationships. ” The perspectives of  computerized distribution channels are therefore limited.

The German pension system of the statutory pension insurance has now more in common with an illegal pyramid scheme than any serious offer in referral marketing. “A pyramid scheme in the unfair sense is given,” says Michael Strachowitz, a well-known network coach, “if the income of the already in the system members from the entrance fees of newly added members is denied, with the result that the system collapses immediately when no new members join. ” A serious system rules out this case.

Gabi Steiner shares in her book with the reader her love for referral marketing, “because it gives every person, regardless of age, gender, occupation, origin, the chance to be successful.” Machines replace muscles, computer brain, exclusively in humans remain emotions. In order to identify successful entrepreneurs – as Gabi Steiner explains using a circuit diagram – the question of the reason for their actions must be asked: “Anyone who has no reason to do something has a reason to do nothing!”

Emotions are transported with stories. Therefore, In Gabi Steiner’s concept stories play a big role, especially autobiographies. The book gives an insight into the “target collage”, as she calls it, of a successful entrepreneur. By giving a dream a date, it becomes a goal. Thinking and acting are components of success, so that there is no failure, but only success that did not occur early enough.

Gabi Steiner writes her book at a time when many people have forgotten to ask about the needs of their fellow human beings. People are already accustomed too much to adopt algorithms on the Internet, to recognize needs and to coat the visitors of websites with advertising. Her motto, on the other hand, is: “Find out what your counterpart wants and help him achieve that.”

Principles and values ​​play a major role. Gabi Steiner: “Paths arise when walking!” Anyone who understands Gaby Steiner’s book has not only learned a wealth of concepts and ideas and gained business insights, but has also acquired criteria for assessing a successful startup, because at its core, it is always about relationships between people. Successful entrepreneurs are people who, as multipliers, move many people – movement in the literal as well as figurative sense. “It’s not enough for something that it merely works, it’s important that it duplicates!”

Gabi Steiner brings to paper an astonishing amount of know-how in referral marketing. The reader may expect color and an entertaining reading that does not tire of scientific footnote apparatuses, but honors the ideas of profiled experts through fair quoting. With original terms such as “vaccination and snails technology”, Gabi Steiner makes it easy for readers to remember the many tools presented in the book. The book is recommended as an introduction and guide to referral marketing.

Practical example:
https://ww1.lifeplus.com/ingridlukas/de/de

Rating Referral Marketing Businesses

Books, Criteria, Experts

“There is no recognizable path ahead of us, but only behind us,” writes Gabi Steiner in her book “From Person to Person – Earning a Stable Income From Referral Marketing“. Any rating of the future prospects of a business model can only be based on the information that humanity has gathered to date. “Successful people,” Gabi Steiner points out, “act on the basis of verified information. Unsuccessful people act on the basis of unchecked prejudices.”

Is referral marketing a way to make money?

“It makes me sad when I hear that someone reduces this opportunity to earning money,” writes Gabi Steiner. Rather, she is concerned with ideal values, such as a high degree of freedom and independence, and a way to “make and maintain friendships, get to know other people, customs and, above all, the luxury of ‘time’ for health, family, friends and to have hobbies. “

By referral marketing, she understands “a simple concept to bring products directly from the manufacturer to the consumer, and money that is typically spent on conventional distribution and advertising sales methods is instead paid to those who bring others to the product for their own use.”

With entertaining examples, Gabi Steiner makes it clear that referral marketing is not about sales. Selling is much more the consequence of buying – when it comes to products that are suitable for everyone, this is okay for everybody.

The new information and communication technologies also make a consumer network possible online – with new dimensions for network marketing. For referral marketing, “what’s important, what we really need, what’s in the trend, is an industry with growth potential, with a future.” This is how Gabi Steiner outlines wellness, fitness, health and anti-aging or even “best aging”.

“Network marketing works best,” says Gabi Steiner, quoting Richard Poe, “if you just keep working face-to-face and heart-to-heart with people on a daily basis. The only glue that keeps a network together for a long time consists of friendship, loyalty and personal relationships. ” The perspectives of  computerized distribution channels are therefore limited.

The German pension system of the statutory pension insurance has now more in common with an illegal pyramid scheme than any serious offer in referral marketing. “A pyramid scheme in the unfair sense is given,” says Michael Strachowitz, a well-known network coach, “if the income of the already in the system members from the entrance fees of newly added members is denied, with the result that the system collapses immediately when no new members join. ” A serious system rules out this case.

Gabi Steiner shares in her book with the reader her love for referral marketing, “because it gives every person, regardless of age, gender, occupation, origin, the chance to be successful.” Machines replace muscles, computer brain, exclusively in humans remain emotions. In order to identify successful entrepreneurs – as Gabi Steiner explains using a circuit diagram – the question of the reason for their actions must be asked: “Anyone who has no reason to do something has a reason to do nothing!”

Emotions are transported with stories. Therefore, In Gabi Steiner’s concept stories play a big role, especially autobiographies. The book gives an insight into the “target collage”, as she calls it, of a successful entrepreneur. By giving a dream a date, it becomes a goal. Thinking and acting are components of success, so that there is no failure, but only success that did not occur early enough.

Gabi Steiner writes her book at a time when many people have forgotten to ask about the needs of their fellow human beings. People are already accustomed too much to adopt algorithms on the Internet, to recognize needs and to coat the visitors of websites with advertising. Her motto, on the other hand, is: “Find out what your counterpart wants and help him achieve that.”

Principles and values ​​play a major role. Gabi Steiner: “Paths arise when walking!” Anyone who understands Gaby Steiner’s book has not only learned a wealth of concepts and ideas and gained business insights, but has also acquired criteria for assessing a successful startup, because at its core, it is always about relationships between people. Successful entrepreneurs are people who, as multipliers, move many people – movement in the literal as well as figurative sense. “It’s not enough for something that it merely works, it’s important that it duplicates!”

Gabi Steiner brings to paper an astonishing amount of know-how in referral marketing. The reader may expect color and an entertaining reading that does not tire of scientific footnote apparatuses, but honors the ideas of profiled experts through fair quoting. With original terms such as “vaccination and snails technology”, Gabi Steiner makes it easy for readers to remember the many tools presented in the book. The book is recommended as an introduction and guide to referral marketing.

Practical example:
https://ww1.lifeplus.com/ingridlukas/de/de