A Hurdle of Practical Importance

Definitions, Modifiers, Scales, Symbols

The clear divide between investment-grade and speculative-grade debt markets dates back decades. A number of central banks make their bond purchase programs dependent on minimum credit ratings. These are often operationalized by specifying rating symbols, such as the rating symbols Baa3 or BBB-. When a rating agency tries to win paid orders from issuers by…